Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics | Vol 8 | Issue 1 | Jan-Jun 2023 | page: 41-46 | Ranjit Deshmukh
Author: Ranjit Deshmukh 
 Consultant Orthopaedic Surgeon, Blooming Buds Paediatric Orthopaedics Department, Deenanath Mangeshkar
Hospital, Pune, Maharashtra, India.
Address of Correspondence
Dr. Ranjit Deshmukh,
Consultant Orthopedic Surgeon, Blooming Buds Paediatric Orthopaedics Department, Deenanath Mangeshkar
Hospital, Pune, Maharashtra, India.
Flat feet are rarely symptomatic in children. The reason for consultation is usually parental anxiety and peer pressure. Majority of the patients and their parents needs to be treated with assurance. The clinical assessment of the foot must however be performed systematically in order to detect signs of symptomatic flat feet that are detected early and treated within time. Asymptomatic flexible flat feet constitute the majority of these feet and need to be assessed for a tight tendo achilles. Feet with a tight tendo achilles are most likely to become symptomatic and may need some form of treatment. The treatment is primarily conservative however in exceptional circumstances joint sparing osteo tomies of the feet are recommended Evaluation of the foot should detect any signs of a rigid flat foot. The cause of rigidity if established early can be addressed to prevent long term morbidity.
Keywords: :Flexible Flatfoot, Rigid Flatfoot Achilles tendon contracture, Foot Osteotomies.
- Mosca VS. Flexible flatfoot in children and adolescents. J Child Orthop 2010;4:107-21.
- Harris RI, Beath T. Army Foot Survey: An Investigation of Foot Ailments in Canadian Soldiers. Vol. 1. Ottawa, Ontario: National Research Council of Canada; 1947. p. 1-268.
- Staheli LT, Chew DE, Corbett M. The longitudinal arch: A survey of eight hundred and eighty-two feet in normal children and adults. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1987;69:426-8.
- Evans AM, Rome K. A Cochrane review of the evidence for non-surgical interventions for flexible pediatric flat feet. Eur J Phys Rehabil Med 2011;47:69-89.
- Pfeiffer M, Kotz R, Ledl T, Hauser G, Sluga M. Prevalence of flat foot in preschool-aged children. Pediatrics 2006;118:634-9.
- Rao UB, Joseph B. The influence of footwear on the prevalence of flat foot. A survey of 2300 children. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1992;74:525-7.
- Sachithanandam V, Joseph B. The influence of footwear on the prevalence of flat foot. A survey of 1846 skeletally mature persons. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1995;77:254-7.
- Duchenne GB. Physiology of Motion. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders; 1959. p. 337.
- Basmajian JV, Stecko G. The role of muscles in arch support of the foot: An electromyographic study. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1963;45:1184-90.
- Mosca VS. Calcaneal lengthening for valgus deformity of the hind foot: Results in children who had severe, symptomatic flatfoot and skew foot. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1995;77:500-12.
- Bouchard M, Mosca VS. Flatfoot deformity in children and adolescents: Surgical indications and management. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2014;22:623-32.
- Meary R. On the measurement of the angle between the talus and the first metatarsal: Symposium. Le Pied creux essential. Rev Chir Orthop 1967;53:389-467.
- Davids JR, Gibson TW, Pugh LI. Quantitative segmental analysis of weight bearing radiographs of the foot and ankle for children: Normal alignment. J Pediatr Orthop 2005;25:769-76.
- Wenger DR, Mauldin D, Speck G, Morgan D, Lieber RL. Corrective shoes and inserts as treatment for flexible flatfoot in infants and children. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1989;71:800810.
- Mann R, Inman VT. Phasic activity of intrinsic muscles of the foot. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1964;46:469-81.
- Bordelon RL. Correction of hypermobile flatfoot in children by molded insert. Foot Ankle 1980;1:143-50.
- MacKenzie AJ, Rome K, Evans AM. The efficacy of nonsurgical interventions for pediatric flexible flat foot: A critical review. J Pediatr Orthop 2012;32:830-4.
- Rathjen KE, Mubarak SJ. Calcaneal cuboid-cuneiform osteotomy for the correction of valgus foot deformities in children. J Pediatr Orthop 1998;18:775-82.
- Dobbs MB, Purcell DB, Nunley R, Morcuende JA. Early results of a new method of treatment for idiopathic congenital vertical talus. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2006;88:1192-200.
- Mazzocca AD, Thomson JD, Deluca PA, Romness MJ. Comparison of the posterior approach versus the dorsal approach in the treatment of congenital vertical talus. Pediatr Orthop 2001;21:212-7.
- Mosca VS, Bevan WP. Talocalcaneal tarsal coalitions and the calcaneal lengthening osteotomy: The role of deformity correction. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2012;94:1584-94.
- Gantsoudes GD, Roocroft JH, Mubarak SJ. Treatment of talocalcaneal coalitions. J Pediatr Orthop 2012;32:301-7.
- Khoshbin A, Law PW, Caspi L, Wright JG. Long-term functional outcomes of resected tarsal coalitions. Foot Ankle Int 2013;34:1370-5.
- Wilde PH, Torode IP, Dickens DR, Cole WG. Resection for symptomatic talocalcaneal coalition. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1994;76:797-801.
- Scranton PE Jr. Treatment of symptomatic talocalcaneal coalition. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1987;69:533-9.
|How to Cite this article: Deshmukh R. Foot Falls – Managing Flatfeet in Children and Adolescents. Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics Jan-Jun 2023;8(1):41-46.|